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THE CASE AGAINST VEGANISM - 1

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Dr. Herbert Shelton believed that science pointed in the direction of veganism (100% plant based diet) as natural for humans, and in 1928 there was not much evidence against this conclusion. He summarized his thinking in this article Man's Dietetic Character from 1944. But the evidence has now mounted in the other direction, against veganism and for omnivorism (animal & plant based diet) as the natural state of humans, for 3/4 of a century.


Below are a few examples of the scientific evidence in the case against veganism.

CHIMPANZEES HUNT AND EAT MEAT
CHIMPANZEE LIFE-SPAN RESEARCH 2004
MICE EXPERIMENTS 1996 - TESTING DIFFERENT VEGETARIAN DIETS
RAT EXPERIMENTS 1941
RAT EXPERIMENTS 1912
RESEARCH BY DR. WESTON A. PRICE - 1939
ANTHROPOLOGICAL DIET RESEARCH - 1989
SUMMARY OF SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING - M2M 1993


Note: INHS' diet position is based on the scientific results below, as well as examples of humans who have been damaged by vegan diets.


THE CASE AGAINST VEGANISM - 2



THE JANE GOODALL INSTITUTE: CHIMPANZEES HUNT AND EAT MEAT

CONCLUSION:
  • wild chimpanzees eat meat
  • chimpanzees hunt
  • Goodall's research disproved earlier belief that chimpanzees are 100% plant eaters
  • chimpanzees and humans are closely related (98% same genes)


    "Meat is a favored food item among chimpanzees "
    chimpanzee Flo eating termites - Jane Goodall Institute"At first, the Gombe chimps fled whenever they saw Jane. But she persisted, watching from a distance with binoculars, and gradually the chimps allowed her closer. One day in October 1960 she saw chimps David Graybeard and Goliath strip leaves off twigs to fashion tools for fishing termites from a nest. Scientists thought humans were the only species to make tools, but here was evidence to the contrary. On hearing of Jane's observation, her mentor Louis Leakey said: "Now we must redefine tool, redefine man, or accept chimpanzees as humans."
    Also in her first year at Gombe, Jane observed chimps hunting and eating bushpigs and other animals, disproving theories that chimpanzees were primarily vegetarians and fruit eaters who only occasionally supplemented their diet with insects and small rodents."
    janegoodall.org/jane/default.asp

    "One of the first and most significant discoveries made by Jane Goodall was that chimpanzees hunt for and eat meat. During her first year she observed a male chimp, David Greybeard, an adult female, and a juvenile eating what Jane realized was a young bushpig. Before this, it had been assumed that chimpanzees ate only fruit and leaves.
    On that first occasion it was not clear whether the chimpanzees had caught and killed the prey, or merely come upon a carcass. But a short time later Jane actually observed the hunting process when a group of chimpanzees attacked, killed, and ate a red colobus monkey that had climbed high into a tree. The hunters covered all available escape routes while one adolescent male crept up after the prey and captured it, whereupon the other males instantly rushed up and seized parts of the carcass.
    Successful hunters typically share some portion of their kill with other group members in response to a variety of begging behaviors. Most of the captured animal is eaten, including the brain. Meat is a favored food item among chimpanzees, but does not make up more than two percent of their overall diet. "
    The Jane Goodall Institute - Chimpanzee Central
    janegoodall.org/chimp_central/chimpanzees/behavior/hunting.asp




    APE GENIUS - MOVIE



    Excellent PBS Nova 52 min video from 2009 - APE GENIUS
    about how similar apes are to humans.
    E.g. wild chimps in hunting situations, eating meat, "loving meat!", & fishing for ants. About chimp pool parties, spear-making, grief, problem-solving, & more.
    (2009 Emmy Nominee)

    http://video.pbs.org/video/1200128615

    Same video on Youtube: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3830684889540805606#




    CHIMPANZEE LIFE-SPAN RESEARCH 2004

    CONCLUSION:
  • more meat-eating results in a natural selection of animals with "meat-adaptive genes"
  • hominids that ate more meat over time developed slower aging & longer life-span that other hominid species
  • human evolution is an example of this development



    MEAT-ADAPTIVE GENES AND THE EVOLUTION OF SLOWER AGING IN HUMANS

    CALEB E. FINCH
    Andrus Gerontology Center and Department of Biological Sciences University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90089 USA
    cefinch@usc.edu

    CRAIG B. STANFORD
    Jane Goodall Research Center, Departments of Anthropology and Biological Sciences University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90089 USA
    stanford@usc.edu

    ABSTRACT
    The chimpanzee life span is shorter than that of humans, which is consistent with a faster schedule of aging. We consider aspects of diet that may have selected for genes that allowed the evolution of longer human life spans with slower aging. Diet has changed remarkably during human evolution. All direct human ancestors are believed to have been largely herbivorous.
    Chimpanzees eat more meat than other great apes, but in captivity are sensitive to hypercholesterolemia and vascular disease. We argue that this dietary shift to increased regular consumption of fatty animal tissues in the course of hominid evolution was mediated by selection for "meat-adaptive" genes. This selection conferred resistance to disease risks associated with meat eating also increased life expectancy.
    One candidate gene is apolipoprotein E (apoE), with the E3 allele evolved in the genus Homo that reduces the risks for Alzheimer's and vascular disease, as well as influencing inflammation, infection, and neuronal growth. Other evolved genes mediate lipid metabolism and host defense. The timing of the evolution of apoE and other candidates for meat-adaptive genes is discussed in relation to key events in human evolution.

    KEYWORDS aging, apolipoprotein E, chimpanzee, diet, evolution, great apes, human, hypercholesterolemia

    The Quarterly Review of Biology, March 2004, Vol. 79, No. 1
    Copyright 2004 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
    0033-5770/2004/7901-0001$15.00



  • MICE EXPERIMENTS 1996 - TESTING DIFFERENT VEGETARIAN DIETS

    CONCLUSION:
  • eggs give superior results in vegetarian diets, better than dairy
  • deficiency is more damaging than toxicity
  • fruitarianism is a dangerous and severely damaging diet
  • lack of animal foods produced mice cannibalism


    IN SEARCH OF THE ULTIMATE VEGETARIAN DIET
    by Dr. Stanley S. Bass, 1996

    MICE AND THE FRUITARIAN DIET
    I put a group of mice on a fruitarian diet. But they didn't seem to be eating very much fruit, and they certainly weren't crazy about it. .....
    ..... When I returned them to the fruitarian diet, after the second day they started the cannibalistic behavior again. They grabbed another young mouse and this time they ate it. The poor thing. I saw it happen. I was shocked. I'd never seen anything like this. "What happened here?" I asked myself.
    I had given them a fruitarian diet, a diet that some natural health practitioners fervently believe in. Then I added corn, then avocado, foods that fruitarians are not supposed to include, and still I ran into trouble. It really scared me to witness what had happened to my mice. I worried then and still worry about people who attempt to be fruitarians.

    DEFICIENCIES FROM THE FRUITARIAN DIET
    ..... To relate the results to humans, this trial seemed to indicate that after being a fruitarian for the human equivalent of three months, humans would show deficiencies and imbalances and health problems. My results suggested that if a fruitarian lived strictly without cheating he would be able to do so for three months before deficiencies began to show. But since the average fruitarian cheats, he doesn't know the diet doesn't work. If he didn't cheat, after three months his body would start breaking down. He wouldn't necessarily die, but problems would start to develop.
    I immediately added greens, lettuce leaves, and carrot tops. I was stunned by this experience. I determined that the cause of death was due to protein deficiencies, mineral deficiencies, and possible sugar poisoning from the excess fruit. This shocked me. I became so disillusioned that I stopped fruit in all the cages. I had about five cages at the time with about 150 mice. From there on no mice got fruit anymore. Only later, after many months, equivalent of several human years, did I gradually re-introduce a little fruit. ....

    TESTING EGG YOLK AND EGG WHITE
    ..... Interestingly, in the raw food vegetarian cage of mice, when I substituted egg yolk instead of cheese, the growth was even more rapid.
    ..... And all the books were saying, "Egg yolks, stay away from them. You'll die of cholesterol. They'll give you heart attacks." For me, I considered one egg a good maximum. Two only for emergencies. Even though Dr. Cursio used daily as many as four egg yolks on some patients, their blood pressure dropped steadily. I found the same to be true. Lecithin in egg yolks appears to negate cholesterol deposition in arteries.
    When I saw the results with the mice, I changed my opinion about eggs.

    ..... Every time I made a discovery with the mice I introduced it with my patients. I found with each discovery that when I introduced it into the diet of a patient, greater improvements resulted. I was excited. I was into new territory, and I saw no limit to the tremendous knowledge that could unfold. Dr. Cursio was also excited because my findings helped to verify his work as accurate.
    drsbass.com/mice.html


  • RAT EXPERIMENTS 1941

    CONCLUSION:
  • Rats developed diseases on vegetarian diets, and vitamin D deficiency



    CAUSE OF CATARACT, PARATHYROID HYPERTROPHY, AND HYPOCALCEMIA IN VEGETARIAN RATS

    CTTANG-YING CITANG, TUNG-TOU CHEN, LISTEN WU AND TSUNG-HSIEN LUQ
    (From the Departments of Biochemistry and Ophthalmology, Peiping Union Medical College, Peiping)
    Chinese Journal of Physiology, 1941, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp 257-264

    ABSTRACT
    It has been reported that vegetarian rats developed parathyroid hypertrophy, hypocalcemia (Chang and Cheri, 1940) and cataract (Chen, Chang and Luo, 1941; Chang, Chen and Luo, 1941) and these abnormalities are presumably due to a deficiency of vitamin D in the diet. In the present paper experiments are described which show indeed that this is the case.

    SUMMARY
    The cause of cataract, parathyroid hypertrophy and hypocalcemia in the vegetarian rats has been determined by feeding experiments.
    Cataract was prevented by supplementing the vegetarian diet (4IA) with either Ca or vitamin D or both. Cataract was aggravated by supplementing the vegetarian diet with P. Parathyroid hypertrophy was also prevented by increasing either Ca or vitamin D or both in the vegetarian diet. Vitamin D seems to be more effective in this respect. Hypocalcemia disappeared in the vegetarian rats whenever the content of either Ca or of vitamin D or of both in the vegetarian diet was increased.
    From these findings, it is concluded that the deficiency of vitamin D in the vegetarian diet is the cause of cataract, parathyroid hypertrophy and hypocalcemia in the vegetarian rats.

    (contributed by Dr. Bass)



  • RAT EXPERIMENTS 1912

    CONCLUSION:
  • vegan rats were weak - did only produce 20% of expected work, compared to non-vegan rats.
  • vegan rats lacked energy
  • vegan rats died early
  • vegan rats were sickly - physically and mentally




    VEGAN DIETS ARE DEFICIENT - SCIENTIFIC PROOF ALREADY IN 1912
    Animal experiment - vegan albino rats die early and have low energy

    FINDINGS:
    "The vegetarians were emaciated and skinny. Their back arched and more or less stiffened. The fur was harsh and ruffled, and the tail and nose inclined to be more or less covered with dry scale and sores. The attitude presented extreme lassitude and indifference. They remained in a crouched position most of the time, their legs appearing too weak to support their weight for only a short while. They lacked energy..."
    "In regard to growth, we must conclude that the data is decidedly in favor of the omnivorous rats and against the vegetarians."
    "The ratio of omnivorous to the vegetarians in regard to efficiency was about 5 : 1."
    "After the third month the general average of the vegetarians falls below that of the omnivorous."
    "We must not lose sight of the fact that this difference in ability to do work is caused by the presence of animal food in one diet and the absence of it in the other, this being the only difference in the environment."


    http://drsbass.com/veganrats.html



  • DENTAL RESEARCH 1939 - BY DR. WESTON A. PRICE

    CONCLUSION:
  • There was a non-existence of vegans among primitive tribes.
  • All primitives in excellent health were using both plant and animal sources for food.



    Nutrition and Physical Degeneration
    A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects
    by WESTON A. PRICE, MS., D.D.S., F.A.G.D., 1939

    EXCERPT
    During these investigations of primitive races, I have been impressed with the superior quality of the human stock developed by Nature wherever a liberal source of sea foods existed. These zones of abundant marine life were largely in the wake of the ocean currents drifting from the ice fields of the poles. The Humboldt Current is probably the most liberal carrier of marine life of any of the ocean currents. It leaves the ice field of the Antarctic and bathes the west coast of South America from its southern tip nearly to the equator, where the coast line changes direction and the Humboldt Current is deflected out into the ocean. It meets here a warm current coming down from the coast of Central America, Panama and Columbia. If the superb physiques that Nature has established among the Maori of New Zealand, the Malays of the Islands north of Australia, the Gaelics of the Outer Hebrides and the natives on several of the archipelagos of the Pacific, owe their superior physical development to sea foods, we should expect to find that the tribes which have had contact with the great Humboldt Current food would also have superb physiques. ....

    In many of the primitive tribes living by the sea we found emphasis on the value of fish eggs and on some animal forms for insuring a high physical development of growing children, particularly of girls, and a high perfection of offspring through a reinforcement of the mother's nutrition. It is also important to note that in several of the primitive tribes studied there has been a consciousness that not only the mother should have special nutrition, but also the father. In this group very great value was placed upon a product obtained from a sea form known locally as the angelote or angel fish, which in classification is between a skate and a shark. The young of the angelota are born alive, ready for free swimming and capable of foraging for themselves immediately at birth. Twenty to thirty young are born in one litter. The eggs of the female before fertilization are about one inch in diameter, slightly oval but nearly spherical. They are used as food by all, but the special food product for men is a pair of glands obtained from the male. These glands weigh up to a pound each, when they are dried. They have a recognized value among the natives for treating cases of tuberculosis, especially for controlling lung hemorrhages. The sea foods were used in conjunction with the land plants and fruits raised by means of irrigation in the river valleys. Together these foods provided adequate nutrition for maintaining high physical excellence. ....
    ------
    We may divide the primitive racial stocks into groups, classified according to the physical environment in which they are living and the manner in which the environment largely controls their available foods. It is significant that I have as yet found no group that was building and maintaining good bodies exclusively on plant foods. A number of groups are endeavoring to do so with marked evidence of failure. The variety of animal foods available has varied widely in some groups, and been limited among others.

    In the preceding chapter we have seen that the successful dietaries included in addition to a liberal source of minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water-soluble vitamins, a source of fat-soluble vitamins.

    Vitamin D is not found in plants, but must be sought in an animal food. The dietaries of the efficient primitive racial stocks may be divided into groups on this basis: in the first place those obtaining their fatsoluble activators, which include the known fat-soluble vitamins, from efficient dairy products. This includes the Swiss in the high Alps, the Arabs (using camel's milk), and the Asiatic races (using milk of sheep and musk ox). In the second place there are those using liberally the organs of animals, and the eggs of birds, wild and domesticated. These include the Indians of the far North, the buffalo hunting Plains Indians and the Andean tribes. In the third place there are those using liberally animal life of the sea. These include Pacific Islanders and coastal tribes throughout the world. In the fourth place there are those using small animals and insects. These include the Australian Aborigines in the interior, and the African tribes in the interior.

    Many of the above groups use foods from two or more sources. Each of the groups has provided an adequate quantity of body-building material from both animal and plant tissues. It does not matter what the source of minerals and vitamins may be so long as the supply is adequate. In our modern life, the location of a group will determine the most efficient and most convenient source for obtaining the essential foods. Clearly, for those near the coast, the sea may be most convenient, while for those in the interior or in the far North, dairy products or the organs of animals may be the only available source. ....

    Since the sea foods are, as a group, so valuable a source of the fatsoluble activators, they have been found to be efficient throughout the world not only for controlling tooth decay, but for producing a human stock of high vitality. Unfortunately the cost of transportation in the fresh state often constitutes a factor limiting distribution. Many of the primitive races preserved the food value, including vitamins, very efficiently by drying the fish. While our modern system of canning prevents decomposition, it does not efficiently preserve some of the fatsoluble activators, particularly vitamin A.

    Since the organs, particularly the livers of animals, are storage depots of the vitamins an important source of some of the fat-soluble activators can be provided by extracting the fat of the livers and shipping it as liver oils. Modern methods of processing have greatly improved the quality of these oils. There are some factors, however, which can be provided to great advantage for humans from dairy products of high efficiency.

    I have shown in the preceding chapter the quantities of several of the minerals that are essential in suitable chemical form to maintain an adult in good health and make possible tissue repair. The dietaries of the various primitive groups have all been shown to have a mineral content several times higher than that which obtains in the inadequate food eaten by modernized primitives and the people of our modernized cultures.

    WESTON A. PRICE, 1939   www.westonaprice.org/


  • ANTHROPOLOGICAL DIET RESEARCH - 1989

    CONCLUSION:
  • Early humans were NOT browsers and fruit-eaters
  • Early humans were either scavengers or cold-climate hunters, and did plant-gathering.
  • Our ancestors often ate poorly, depending on climate etc
  • Dirt, grit and fibers constituted a large part of their diets.


    What Did Our Ancestors Eat?

    Stanley M. Garn, Ph.D., and William R. Leonard, Ph.D.
    NUTRITION REVIEWS, VOL 47, NO 11, NOVEMBER 1989, 337-345


    ABSTRACT
    Over the millennia various hominoids and hominids have subsisted on very different dietaries, depending on climate, hunting proficiency, food-processing technology, and available foods. The Australopithecines were not browsers and fruit-eaters with very high intakes of vitamin C; rather they were scavengers of kills made by other animals. The hominids who followed did include some cold-climate hunters of large game, but the amount of animal protein decreased with the advent of grain-gathering and decreased further with the introduction of cereal agriculture, with a concomitant decrease in body size. From what we know about food adequacy, preparation, and storage, the notion that the postulated "primitive" diet was generally adequate, safe, and prudent can be rejected. Over evolutionary time, many of our ancestors ate poorly, especially during climatic extremes, and they were often at risk for vitamin deficiencies, food-borne diseases, and neurotoxins. Until the advent of modern processing technologies, dirt, grit, and fiber constituted a large part of most early diets.

    Read "What Did Our Ancestors Eat?" here



  • SUMMARY OF SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING - M2M 1993
    Beginning new understanding in Natural Hygiene of humans as omnivores


    CONCLUSIONS:
  • Early Ayurveda teaches omnivorism
  • The same diet may be more deficient for one person, than for another
  • Veganism can be used as a cleansing program
  • The archaeological evidence for humans as omnivores is massive
  • Early evolution of hominids is very variable when it comes to diet
  • Lean & wild animal meats are fine, grain-fed meats are not
  • The meat from wild animals has one-sixth the total fat and one-tenth the saturated fat of the meat from domesticated animals


    "When I first (roughly about a year ago) actually got into what is now known about this by scientists through archaeology (digging up our past) and paleontology (studying fossils), I was somewhat disturbed initially to discover how often the subject of meat-eating prehistoric humans kept coming up and in such a matter-of-fact way. Surely - I thought - there must be something wrong with these so-called scientists for them NOT to understand that humankind was ACTUALLY a vegetarian or perhaps even fruitarian originally! After all, wasn't that what all the vegetarian and/or hygienic literature consistently told us and purported to prove - via anatomical comparisons with other animals, the length and type of digestive tract, tooth structure, lack of human claws, and so on? And didn't any scientist worth their salt KNOW about all this? What was the matter with these cretins?!!"

    Read M2M #9 excerpts.



    Also, read this 18-page summary of insulin's effects on your health written by one of the world's top researchers in paleolithic nutrition, Dr. Loren Cordain:
    http://thepaleodiet.com/articles/Hyperinsulinemic%20Diseases%20Final.pdf

    Find an interesting summary of scientific evidence against veganism by former natural hygienist Ward Nicholson here
    www.beyondveg.com/nicholson-w/hb/hb-interview1a.shtml - beginning with a 1996 interview

    "Paleontological evidence shows humans have always been omnivores - Evidence well-known in scientific community; controversial only for vegetarians."




  • THE CASE AGAINST VEGANISM - 2


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